STM32 has more features than Arduino board. So it would be great to learn about communication between STM32 and Arduino by using SPI & I2C bus. In this tutorial, we will use I2C bus for communication between Arduino and STM32F103C8, and will learn about SPI bus in next tutorial. To know more about STM32 board, check other STM32 projects.
Find here the complete project with circuit diagram, code and tutorial: https://circuitdigest.com/microcontroller-projects/stm32-stm32f103c8-i2c-communication-tutorial