Electronics
Electronics

In simple Op-Amp applications, the output is proportional to the input amplitude. But when op-amp is configured as an integrator, the duration of the input signal is also considered. Therefore, an op-amp based integrator can perform mathematical integration with respect to time. The integrator produces an output voltage across the op-amp, which is directly proportional to the integral of the input voltage; therefore the output is dependent on the input voltage over a period of time.

Here is the full tutorial: https://circuitdigest.com/tutorial/op-amp-integrator-circuit-working-construction-applications

Almost all types of sensors and transducers convert real world parameters like light, temperature, weight etc into voltage values for our electronic systems to understand it. The variation in this voltage level will help us in analyzing/measuring the real world parameters, but in some applications like biomedical sensors this variation is very small (low-level signals) and it is very important to keep track of even the minute variation to get reliable data. In these applications an Instrumentation Amplifier is used.

Read about the instrumentation amplifiers with an example circuit: https://circuitdigest.com/electronic-circuits/instrumentation-amplifier-circuit-using-op-amp